The Bible is mainly concerned with the nation of Israel and its neighbours.
Below is a simple timeline for Israel relating to the period of the archaeological discoveries mentioned in the Archaeological discoveries section.
As the oldest discovery we look at refers to king David, we shall start our timeline there.
Many of the discoveries relate to the superpowers that dominated the nation of Israel: the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks and Romans.
Each superpower conquered the previous one and Israel usually suffered as a result.
The "section" column refers to the relevant section on the archaeological discoveries page